During his time in the United States, Nkrumah visited and preached
in black Presbyterian Churches in Philadelphia and New York
City. He read books about politics and divinity. He encountered
the ideas of Marcus Garvey. He also tutored other students in
philosophy. He also met the Trinidadian Marxist C.L.R. James
in 1943, and later described how it was from James, then a Trotskyist,
that he learnt 'how an underground movement worked'.
He arrived in London
in May 1945 intending to study at the LSE. However, after meeting
with George Padmore he helped to organize the Fifth Pan-African
Congress in Manchester, England. After that he founded the West
African National Secretariat to work for the decolonization
of Africa. He also became Vice-President of the West African
Students' Union (WASU).
Nkrumah was later
awarded honorary doctorates by Lincoln University, Moscow State
University; Cairo University in Cairo, Egypt; Jagiellonian University
in Kraków, Poland; Humboldt University in the former
East Berlin; and other universities.
As a leader of this
government, Nkrumah faced three serious challenges. First, he
needed to learn the art of government. Second, he needed to
create a unified nation of Ghana from the four territories of
the Gold Coast. Third, he needed to win his nation’s independence.
Nkrumah was successful at all three goals. Within nine years
of his release from prison, he was the executive president of
a unified nation with complete political freedom.